Cholesterol levels – the full guide

Cholesterol levels – the full guide
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After the 2016 announcement of new recommendations of bad cholesterol values, it is estimated that about half of the adult will be required to take medication against cholesterol. What is cholesterol, which drugs reduce it and what side effects, why diets and sports do not really help lowering cholesterol. A detailed guide with all the important answers.

Desired Cholesterol Levels

New recommendations were published in 2016 for the level of “bad” cholesterol in the blood. Whereby, the target values for an targeted population (people who have cardiac event or stroke, diabetes or who are suffering from multiple sclerosis) will be at 80 milligrams per deciliter, instead of the current practice 100. It is estimated that following the new guidelines, about half of the US population over age 40 will need cholesterol-lowering statin treatment. But what it actually cholesterol, and why it binds almost always negative implications?

Cholesterol, the substance which we so afraid of him, was in fact in every cell in our body. However, excessive levels of Cholesterol become one of the main causes of mortality in the western world. High levels of cholesterol in the blood vessel walls sinking, causing an inflammatory process that blocks the blood vessels and leads to heart attack and stroke, the formation of fatty liver and many other diseases. Statin drugs have brought a real revolution when he managed to reduce cholesterol levels, and with them to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates.

What are the new recommendations for cholesterol levels?

Cholesterol values: the new recommendations are talking about reducing the target value of LDL cholesterol below 80 milligrams per deciliter in people with evidence of atherosclerosis (cardiac event or stroke or findings that show multiple tests), diabetics and people at high risk group because of the many risk factors for heart disease.   The recommendations also state that people in high risk groups strive to lower LDL-cholesterol below 100-130 milligrams per deciliter. If in spite of changes in diet and physical activity, LDL remained above the target value, must be added to medication, especially statins.

Blood pressure: People with hypertension light (up to 159/99 without evidence of vascular injury and a low overall risk), you can try for a few months in drug treatment. If you do not reach the values ​​of below 140/90, should be started on medication. However, high-risk individuals start blood pressure medication immediately and often a combination of both types of drugs.


Diet:
People who suffer from obesity, defined as BMI over 30, or people with overweight defined as BMI above 25 with associated diseases (diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood fats), must reach the dietician for treatment weight loss. However, due to the risk of metabolic syndrome, although as noted weight loss reduces fat and sugar levels and helps reduce blood pressure, and does not directly affect cholesterol itself.   Recommendations include changing dietary recommendation only low-fat diet, a number of diets, primarily a Mediterranean diet, which includes a preference for fat comes from chicken, fish, olive oil, canola oil, nuts, fish consumption (salmon, cod, tuna) at least twice a week. In people with heart disease should consume fish four or five times a week, or the addition of fish oil pills (800-1000 mg daily), limiting cholesterol to 300 mg daily (250 mg swamp), limiting saturated fat (beef, full-fat dairy products) and trans fat comes from hydrogenated vegetable oils are used mainly industrial food products (like baked goods).


Exercise:
moderate intensity (walking, cycling) – five times a week for 30 minutes, high-intensity exercise (ball games, mostly) – three times a week for 20 minutes, and muscle strengthening activity – twice a week

Is the rest of the world recommend taking statins cholesterol levels are already low?

New guidelines published by the WHO recommend doctors to treat patients at high risk of treatment with statin drugs has been the values of bad cholesterol are over 70, with recommendations less stringent and provide that enough at this point the values of LDL of 80 to 100. However some of cardiologists act on the recommendations accepted overseas, and start statins in patients in their bad cholesterol higher than 70.

What is Cholesterol?

Cholesterol is produced only by animals, and is not found in plants. Your body produces cholesterol in the laboratory of the body – liver, and is found in all cells of the body and bloodstream. The body uses cholesterol to produce many hormones, including sex hormones, bile acids and vitamin D. In fact, all organs of the body use cholesterol. Cholesterol component of the membranes that wrap the billions of cells that make it independent functional units.   Normal values ​​stand at less than 160 milligrams per deciliter. Higher values ​​indicate a risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis, the sub-function of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), kidney disease, diabetes or Omacmakat gall bladder (cirrhosis). Levels of 200 milligrams per deciliter double the risk of heart disease and blood vessels. Pregnancy may increase cholesterol levels.   Low levels of cholesterol are caused by the dysfunction of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism), liver disease, poor absorption of food, poor diet, blood infection or lack of vitamin B12. Further, there is a great medical significance to total cholesterol. Complete testing system lipid profile gives more information. Certainly seem possible that high levels of total cholesterol, lipid profile will be in right, and the patient healthy.

What is HDL?

HDL, known as the “good” cholesterol, is a protein-like molecule, which carries cholesterol from the body cells to the liver, where it is metabolized. HDL assists the body get rid of excess fats. Normal men standing on 29-62 milligrams per deciliter, and in women – about 34-82 milligrams per deciliter. High levels usually are not harmful. Levels in women before menopause slightly higher than usual, probably because estrogen stimulates the liver to produce and secrete more HDL. Exercise raises HDL levels. Low levels may indicate a risk for heart disease, hyperlipidemia (excess fat in the blood) or diabetic adults.

What is LDL?

LDL, More commonly known as “bad cholesterol”, is a protein-like molecule, which carries cholesterol to tissues in the body. Actually calculated level of total cholesterol in the blood value. The test is performed free of the fund through a referral from your doctor in vitro simple blood test called “chemistry test” (test tube with green stopper). Normal values are 60-160 milligrams per deciliter. High levels may indicate an increased risk of heart disease sclerotic. Low levels may indicate poor absorption of food or poor nutrition. Those with heart disease or diabetes are required to lower LDL levels of 100 milligrams per deciliter.

What is the ratio of good and bad cholesterol?

Even though Doctors tend to focus more on the LDL level, there is a significance for the ration of the HDL to LDL and you should calculate the cholesterol ratio

What are statins

In the 90s a revolution when it comes to life expectancy: this increased markedly since the presentation of the statin drugs, which reduce cholesterol levels. These drugs not only reduce cholesterol, but also reduce the formation of plaque that blocks blood vessels and inhibiting the deterioration deadly disease.

Statins, then, are the drugs that blocks an enzyme in the body involved in the production of LDL cholesterol, especially the liver. Since the beginning of statin use, there was an increase in life expectancy of hundreds of thousands of people around the world. Perhaps this is why they chose to call doctors statin “drugs of the 21st century.” The use of statins has not only improved results of laboratory cholesterol levels, but also reduced the rate of heart attacks and stroke.

What are the side effects of statins?

A rare side effect of statins is possible damage to the liver, and therefore, these cases require periodic blood tests every few months called “chemistry test.” This is taken vitro HMO, physician and follow through of the level of liver enzymes. However, this is a rare phenomenon. Although statins are used for more than 20 years, is now almost no reports of significant liver injury and some health organizations recommend to stop to monitor liver function in people taking statins.

More common side effect is muscle pain. In many cases the pain pass. In other cases, you can reduce the dose, or combine the treatment with the drug that reduces the absorption of cholesterol in the body.

The desired value of HDL Cholesterol Non-under 160 is mg / dL to a healthy person, and below 130 mg / dL in patients atherosclerosis

If we won’t eat a lot of fats, can we lower high cholesterol?

For years it was claimed that foods with high fat raises cholesterol, but in recent years it was discovered that food is primarily responsible for the increase in cholesterol. It was found that only 15% of the cholesterol in our bodies comes from the food, while the liver produces the rest. Excess cholesterol is a disease, and in fact found that those who had high cholesterol diet and began a hunger, not only failed to adhere to it, also caused the liver continued to produce high amounts of cholesterol. Thus, a sick person Bhifrcolstrolmih, needed medication. However, it is always important to remember that maintaining a sensible diet is essential for maintaining good health.

Does sport and exercise lower cholesterol?

Doing regular sport may helpto slightly increase the levels of good cholesterol (HDL), but it was not proven that it significantly reduces the level of bad cholesterol (LDL). However, exercise is a very important health benefits, and therefore always recommended – even as part of new recommendations released this week. In doing so, exercise is definitely helpful for reducing triglyceride levels reduce, other routes, the risk of heart and blood vessels.

What is the difference between cholesterol and triglycerides?

Triglycerides are a type of fat that is not usually found in plaque that blocks blood vessels, but is found in most body fat. Today relate to triglycerides as part of the metabolic syndrome, a syndrome that includes three of the following components: a high level of triglycerides, low levels of good cholesterol (HDL), high levels of sugar and abdominal obesity. About one-fifth of the population suffers from metabolic syndrome, and is at increased risk of developing diabetes and heart disease and blood vessels. Therefore, weight loss, physical activity and Mediterranean diet are important to avoid the syndrome.

The normal values of triglycerides: 10-190 milligrams per deciliter. Elevated levels may indicate cirrhosis of the liver (cirrhosis), for hypothyroidism, a diet rich in fat, kidney disease or pancreatitis. Low levels may indicate a poor diet, low fat diet, and poor absorption of food and overactive thyroid gland.

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