10 things you should know about heart. What is a heart attack, how to prevent atherosclerosis and risk factors for coronary events? Answers to these questions can save your life
1. What is atherosclerosis?
High level of lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) that accumulate in the blood can cause serious damage, foremost of which is atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process of accumulation and sedimentation of lipids in the artery walls. As a result, the walls thicken and stiffen, causing the arteries to constrict, to fill them completely. Atherosclerosis occurs mainly coronary arteries (coronary) arteries of the neck and brain arteries, the veins of the legs and along the Aorta (the main artery in the body). Coronary artery stenosis or complete blocking blood flow is the common cause of coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of death and disability over the age of 35 in the Western world. Many studies have found that as the level of cholesterol in the blood is increased, the rising incidence of heart disease and death rate them.
2. How would you diagnose atherosclerosis?
MS worsened over time, but the process of narrowing arteries can gradually worsen over time in the absence of symptoms and without the person carrying the MS will know of the existence of his body. Usually only when the stenosis rate is approximately 70-60 percent-diameter artery begin to cause pain or other physical signs (usually during stress physical or mental).
In many cases, the disease is not discovered until the emergence of a state of emergency. Such a state of emergency, which is different from the situation gradually ongoing process, called single process, in which atherosclerotic lesion may become unstable and parts of it may disintegrate and break. In this situation, similar to the cut, blood clot set to cover the rupture area, but often increasing blood clot blocking the artery completely, or almost completely, thus causing a reduction in the amount of blood flowing to the coronary artery.
3. What is a heart attack?
Sharp blocking one of the coronary arteries, usually a result of plaque rupture unstable causing a blood clot that blocks the artery, may lead to a complete cessation or almost complete blood supply to a certain area in the heart. This is called myocardial infarction (heart attack and machine). This event is caused by damage to cardiac tissue, resulting in the affected area gangrene and lose the ability to contract. A similar process, partly caused by occlusion or blockage opened spontaneously called coronary artery one coronary event (a heart attack), but it is not caused significant damage to the heart muscle.
Myocardial infarction is life-threatening and immediate danger to damage the normal functioning of the heart. Therefore, in the event that such an event is suspected, immediately contact the person who suffers the emergency room. There is great importance to arrival for treatment, because the more time passes the less likely reduce damage to the heart muscle.
4. What are the signs of a heart attack?
Unrecognized symptoms of pain or tightness in the chest at rest, or of heartburn in the upper abdomen between the jaws, which often radiates to the left arm feeling or appearing on the back between the shoulder blades. If these symptoms, or even just one of them, continuing for more than ten minutes at a time, and accompanied by shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, general weakness or an immediate evacuation emergency room. To read more about “signs of a heart attack,” click here.
5. What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis?
Medical conditions that increase the risk of atherosclerosis and can cause heart and blood vessels, are divided into modifiable risk factors, affected by environmental factors and lifestyle habits and risk factors may not be varied, as hereditary traits.
Modifiable risk factors:Smoking a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, increases the risk of heart attack by up to six. About 45 percent of heart attacks in young adults are caused by smoking, and is responsible for about one-third of deaths from heart disease.Lack of exercise: Moderate exercise reduces by 20 percent the overall mortality and by-40-20 percent risk of developing heart disease and blood vessels.Nutrition: in recent years has been shown that the Mediterranean diet involves extensive use of extra virgin olive oil; Increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables, cereals and fish; Reducing consumption of red meat preparing homemade sauce with tomatoes, garlic, onions and olive oil, pasta, rice, avoiding butter, cream, fast food, sweets, pastries and drinks sweetened with sugar, and moderate consumption of red wine among those drivers to drink alcohol, may reduce The cardiovascular disease by 30%
Psychological and social stress : When stressful situations, when the body feels danger or threat and increased energy required him to deal with them, the hormone secreted in increased adrenaline, the process comes from the ancient human behavior and response “fight or flight”. The release of adrenaline raises blood sugar and blood pressure, affects the liver to produce glucose and fat tissue to disintegrate rapidly, and increases the heart rate. In recent years, a growing recognition that social and emotional states such as stress, depression, anxiety, loneliness and lack of social support are independent risk factors for heart disease.Diabetes: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that reflects the state of the body lacks insulin or harm its activities. The most common complication of diabetes is atherosclerosis. Diabetes damages the small blood vessels anywhere in the body, among other things, can cause damage to the kidneys and eyes, and cause damage to the nerves, weakening sensations from the limbs and a feeling of tingling. It also greatly increases the risk of heart disease and cardiac events.Hypertension: atherosclerosis and hypertension are phenomena which empower each other and interact and influence each other. Just as in many cases the thickening of plaque in the arterial wall and the plight hinder normal blood flow and cause an increase in blood pressure value greater than usual, so that can also occur in a reverse process: high blood pressure untreated can accelerate atherosclerotic process and hamper the blood flow in the arteries. Sometimes it’s difficult to identify the cause and what is the result, and both disorders, atherosclerosis and hypertension, produce cyclic circular.
Each of the risk factors increases the possibility of developing atherosclerosis and heart disease and blood vessels, and in most patients there is more than one risk factor. For example, a smoker who suffers from obesity and a high level of blood fats, and is careful about physical activity, significantly increases the chances of developing atherosclerosis. The same person with diabetes and is careful about nutrition, or suffer from hypertension untreated, increases the risk of heart disease and blood vessels significantly.
Risk factors that can not be changed:Gender: Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death among women (as in men) and is due to atherosclerosis. A woman’s risk of heart disease three times greater her risk of breast cancer. Studies indicate that the first cardiac event occurs on average a woman around her seventies, a decade later than average men.Age: men over 45 and women over age 55 have a higher risk of getting sick.Heredity and inborn genetic traits: heart disease and blood vessels in a first-degree relative (father or brother have occurred at a young age of 55, or a mother or sister have occurred at a young age of 65), increases the risk.
6. Cholesterol: essential to life but lethal high values
Cholesterol is a fatty substance produced in the cells of our body, especially the liver. Cholesterol found in the walls of the cells and participates in their construction, and participates in preservation of cells and construction of tissue surrounding the nerve. In addition it is also used as raw material for many hormones, including sex hormones and bile acids.
About 75 percent of the cholesterol in the body are produced in the liver, and the remaining 25 percent directly absorbed by the intestine in our bodies comes from the food we eat animal. Any additional external supply of cholesterol is unnecessary, since it increases the absorption of fats in the body beyond the original design priceless, and the resulting increase in blood cholesterol levels.
7. Checking cholesterol and triglycerides
Test results relate to the overall levels of cholesterol, good cholesterol (HDL) in the blood and the concentration level of bad cholesterol (LDL) Bdm.lahronh added another test that is not beneficial cholesterol – HDL Cholesterol Non-score reflects the level of harmful cholesterol in general. In addition, triglyceride levels checked. The test allows to estimate the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease and the need to change lifestyles or drug treatment
The desired value of HDL Cholesterol Non-under 160 is mg / dL to a healthy person, and below 130 mg / dL in patients atherosclerosis
8. The drug treatment of atherosclerosis
The well-known and consumed drugs called statins the (Statins). Statins significantly reduce the overall level of blood cholesterol especially the LDL. They do this by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase whose role is to assist the creation of cholesterol in cells, especially in the liver. Statins also reduce triglyceride values and help raise HDL levels. Also these drugs work to reduce the level of inflammation in the artery walls and nascent They also reduce the inflammatory protein CRP levels in blood. Statins have been defined by the FDA, the American pharmaceuticals, life extension. These drugs may reduce heart disease, the brain events and mortality them by 40-25 percent.
9. The flu vaccine reduces cardiac events
In the winter season there is an increase in the number of cardiac events. It is known that the primary factor affecting this trend is a respiratory infection that occurs most often this season. It was found that both the flu and pneumonia, which naturally involves a high fever and low blood oxygen supply, may seriously impair heart function. Influenza vaccine reduces the number of hospitalizations due to heart and brain diseases, as well as the death toll from them.
10. Food supplements
The question of the need and effectiveness of food supplements raises many controversies. Some argue that in some cases omega-3 may reduce cardiovascular mortality and therefore you should consume the same amount of grams per day or eat two servings of fish a week. Atherosclerosis patients found no benefit in providing omega-3 as a drug or food additive.
Effectiveness of antioxidants, including vitamin E, vitamin C and beta carotene in preventing heart disease progression, no evidence in studies so no recommendation to heart patients Lntlm. The same applies to the antioxidant nutrient Coenzyme Q-10 produced by the body. Even folic acid, vitamin important in creating red blood cells, reducing homocysteine levels and preventing defects in the fetus, is not recommended to take prevention against atherosclerosis and heart disease and blood vessels if the basic diet balanced.
Phytosterols are used to reduce cholesterol levels. Vegetable origin – fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains – but not found in animal sources. They are designed for patients with mildly elevated levels of LDL or engines patients receiving medication due to side effects. Before taking a dietary supplement consult your physician.
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